Through sensitive research and careful choreography, Glial cells are slowly changing how chronic pain is managed. The protein DPNB, a glial cell protein, may be the key.
Dividing via a process called Neuronal transfer gene transfer (NTGT), Glial cells are infused with the protein DPNB to build and maintain new neurons as part of research into pain studies and care. This explains why so many pain research programs have one thing in common – they rely heavily on Glial cells for their research: DPNB is present in the skin and the neurons, or nerve cells, they are embedded in. But DPNB isn’t known to function well in the central nervous system (CNS), something that could potentially hamper their contributions to pain and movement studies. It’s not understood how DPNB works in the CNS, so it’s unclear how it can be transferred into peripheral cells.
Brain Connections Link Diseases and Diseases Treatments
Recently, the researchers looked at whether DPNB is also present in the outer layer of the neurons. How it made its way there isn’t well understood either.
The researchers focused on one brain region, the so-called Pilot cluster, which connects the insula with a network of neural circuits that process sensory data. Their hypothesis was that DPNB-infected neurons would arise there to form new neurons, thus infusing the Glial cells into the neurons would lead to the initial production of nerve cells. Specifically, the researchers tested if the posterior insula is where the Glial cells build new neurons.
Results showed that the Glial cells have indeed started infusing into the dorsal insula and the lateral prefrontal cortex, the first nerve fibers thought to connect the insula and the cortex. The researchers also discovered that DPNB infection in the posterior insula is the result of NEGCD, the discovery of how Neuronal transfer gene transfer occurs in the brain, a result which lead to the discovery of pain in a patient in the 1960s. The surgeons who found the disease by repairing the space between two brains first started off thinking it was epilepsy. When researchers began understanding Neuronal transfer gene transfer, they realized it had to do with pain because pain was symptom.
What is Neuronal Transfer Gene Transfer?
Neuronal transfer gene transfer is an immensely common, but largely unknown, path to have DPNB inserted into or from glial cells. The discovery came after Dr. Robert Keefer began researching the gene DNP4, which increases the activity of Brain Glial Cells when a person is under extreme stress. When that happens, depression, anxiety, anger, and other neurological conditions can begin. The scientists have since discovered DNP4’s results are elicited by a type of nerve that travels from the brain to the spinal cord. Brain Glial Cells cause the nerves to generate activities from the insula. In parallel to this discovery is another how DNP4 participates in the formation of neurons and the nervous system as a whole, something that echoes what scientists found to happen with DPNB.
The DPNB invasion of the insula is in line with my research and at the time of its discovery it was unclear how Glial cells could be used to treat pain.
Researchers know DPNB infuses new neurons into peripheral neurons and, along with DNF38, which infuses new neurons into the dorsal insula. This led to the belief that they would also infuse new neurons into the cortex where pain is heard and seen.
It turns out that, much like DNP4, DPNB infuses new neurons into the outer layer of the neurons, a pathway that also occurs when nerve cells become infected by a brain virus. This essentially puts DPNB in the same domain as endogenous neurotrophic factor, also known as immune suppressor proteins. This type of protein infuses new neurons into neurons. The researchers were able to study the infusing of DPNB in the Pilot cluster. These neurons were found to be abnormally affected by DNP4, and they were theorized to be the source of pain. Researchers were able to image the insula while DPNB was present, which allowed them to determine the neurons that were damaged.
These neurological processes will continue to evolve in studies and breakthroughs will come, revealing how Glial cells integrate into the nervous system. They provide a crucial link in the current understanding of how pain is managed and, as a result, treatment for chronic pain will continue to gain momentum.